Identifying languages is one of the most pivotal steps in finding where you are. Luckily, you don't have to be able to read the language in order to identify the language.
Wikipedia article on identifying languages.
Language Scripts and Families
The first step in recognizing a language is to identify the alphabet/script or family. Much of the world has a Latin script, but there are prominent countries with the Cyrillic, Arabic, and many others. Here are the scripts listed in terms popularity: